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Epidemiological network

 An effective epidemiological data network is necessary in disseminating and collecting surveillance data and information from/to relevant institutions in order to portray an accurate representation of animal health status of the country. The current epidemiological delivery system for animal disease reporting of the Department of Livestock Development (DLD) is shown in figure Below.

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Epidemiological data delivery system

Remark:  AQS = Animal quarantine Station, AB = animal Breeding and Research Center or Station, AI = Artificial Insemination and Research Center

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National Animal Disease Response System

Remark:  AQS = Animal quarantine Station, AB = animal Breeding and Research Center or Station, AI = Artificial Insemination and Research Center

 

Disease reporting

               DLD works to prevent, control and eradicate both exotic and endemic notifiable diseases, to minimise the economic impact of such diseases, and to guarantee the safety of the food chain. DLD works with stakeholders to drive down risks related to animal health. Animal health issues continued to play an important role in maintaining a sustainable food and farming industry and in protecting public health. DLD staff worked hard to understand and meet the needs of our stakeholders around Thailand – both in managing outbreaks and in our wide range of other activities. DLD continued efforts to prevent, prepare for and manage outbreaks of exotic diseases.

               DLD conducts regulatory oversight for the importation of millions of head of livestock including cattle, swine, horses, live poultry, hatching eggs, and commercial birds. DLD also conducts regulatory oversight for germplasm imports. DLD recognizes that animal health risks associated with the importation of animals and animal products may be tied to climatic, geographical, and biological factors that are not always defined by national boundaries. This approach is consistent with Thailand obligations under international trade agreements. Animal health emergencies have a major impact on the Nation’s animal and public health, food safety, economy, and export markets. Animal health emergencies can include exotic animal disease and emerging infectious diseases (EID) incursions and natural disasters.

              DLD by the Bureau of Disease Control and Veterinary Services (BDCVS) is the lead agency that is responsible for preventing or mitigating animal diseases in Thailand. All activities have been undertaken in cooperation with District Livestock Offices, Provincial Livestock Offices and Regional Livestock Offices in support of NIAH and regional veterinary laboratories. BDCVS leads the effort in preparing for and responding effectively to animal disease-related national emergencies. BDCVS develops strategies and policies for effective incident management and coordination of incident responses. During an emergency, BDCVS is responsible for deploying critical veterinary supplies and personal protective equipment to responders within 24 hours. Figure 2-6 shows the organization chart of BDCVS. BDCVS’s strategic approach aligns with the four components:

-  preparedness and communication,

-  surveillance and detection,

-  response and containment, and

-  recovery, compensation, and continuity of business for animal industries.

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Figure 2-6:  Organization chart of Bureau of Disease Control and Veterinary Services

BDCVS creates and facilitates partnerships among Regional Livestock Office, Provincial Livestock Offices, District Livestock Offices, veterinary laboratories, and all levels of government agencies to continually improve the approach to emergency management. Figure below presents the mechanism of emergency animal disease control operation.

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Emergency Animal Disease Control Operation

Animal disease reporting system

An effective active and passive surveillance such as animal disease notification system helps us detect disease outbreak early before it spreads widely.  Usually, the District Livestock Officers (DVO) directly report notifiable diseases suspected or occurred in their area to the Provincial Livestock Office (PLO).  The primary report may either be informed to DLO by villagers, livestock owners, or observed and investigated by themselves.  The PLO will notify, in a line of command, to the Director-General of the DLD through the Center for Veterinary Epidemiology Development, Bureau of Disease Control and Veterinary Services, and other local authorities concerned in the area.

DLD classifies notifiable diseases with respect to national animal disease reporting system. The terrestrial animal disease notification system has occasionally been reviewed and updated.  A Manual of Disease Reporting and the Guidelines containing general knowledge of important diseases in Thailand have been distributed to all PLOs, DLOs, and other relevant stakeholders nationwide.  The local veterinarians are able to preliminarily recognize any suspected disease and follow the instructions step by step immediately.  Field veterinarians are responsible for primary disease investigation of the factors associated with disease outbreaks or animal health problem in affected areas.

 

The District livestock officials are the first DLD authority at the field level to report any suspected cases of notifiable diseases.  The occurrence may be informed to their office, by owners, villagers, farmers, hatcheries or slaughterhouses, in their juristic area.  The local veterinary staff has to conduct disease investigation and collect samples before completing reports and submit them to the provincial office within a specified period (Table 2.5).  In case of any serious disease is confirmed, the district veterinary staff can undergo public awareness campaign through community radio station to educate farmers and villagers.  The farmers or livestock volunteers in affected area are expected to report clinical signs of diseases to the authority as quickly as possible and be on alert. Several reporting forms were used namely DR.1- DR.5.

                        Disease Reporting Forms (DRs) and the duration specified for submission the data to associated authorities

Reporting Form Time period to submit report
Preliminary Animal Disease Reporting Form (DR.1) Within 24 hours after the disease has been noticed
Epidemiological Investigation Reporting Form (DR. 2) Within 72 hours after the disease has been noticed
Disease Status Reporting Form (DR. 3) Weekly report after the disease has been noticed
Vaccination Reporting Form (DR. 4) After ring vaccination in surrounding area has completed
(Designed plan/ Result) Ring Vaccination program (DR. 5)

Designate plan

Within 72 hours after the disease has been noticed.

Vaccination result

After ring vaccination in surrounding area has completed
Progress Report of Disease Control (DR. 6) Weekly report
Sample Submitting Form  To accompany the sample submitted to the laboratory  

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Flow chart of submission and coordination of the disease reporting system

 

OFFICIAL FMD CONTROL PROGRAMME SUBMITTED FOR OIE ENDORSEMENT

 

Thailand by Department of Livestock Development drafted a new strategy called National Foot and Mouth Disease Strategic Plan of Thailand in 2016-2023. This strategic plan continues from the last plan (2008-2015) and is analysed the SWOT Analysis by considering the up-to-date situation of livestock husbandry system and its trend in Thailand and Southeast Asia Region. 

a. Objectives

  • To prevent, control and eradicate FMD from Thailand.
  • To establish progressive FMD free zones with official recognition from OIE.
  • To support exportation of livestock and livestock product toglobal market.

b. The expected status to be achieved

The vision of the plan is “Thailand is free from FMD by 2023 and is a leader in Southeast Asia region in FMD control”.

Through application of Thailand, it is expected that OIE acknowledgement of Thailand as 1. “FMD free zone with vaccination” for the eastern region, 2. “FMD free zone with or without vaccination for the other regions and progressively as a "FMD free country with vaccination" will be achieved.

c. Timelines of the control program

Goals of this program are

  1. Thailand has no spread of FMD in standard pig farms by 2018 and in small pig farms by 2020.
  2. Thailand has no spread of FMD in cattle, buffaloes, goat and sheep by 2020.
  3. Thailand has no incidence of FMD by 2023
    • Region 2 (Eastern) is free from FMD by 2016
    • Region 8 and 9 (Southern) have no incidence of FMD by 2019
    • Region 3 and 4 (Northeastern) have no incidence of FMD by 2020
    • Region 1, 5, 6 and 7 (Central, Northern and Western) have no incidence of FMD by 2022.

d. Performance Indicators

Performance indicators that are composed of various activities of FMD control program in Thailand are conveted into key performance indicators of Bureau of Disease Control and Veterinary Services under Department of Livestock Development (DLD) called E-Operation System. Monthly, all DLD agencies have to report on-line all activities (for example, number of vaccinated animals, number of serum sample submitted, number of farms and animals observed for clinical surveillance, etc.) through the E-Operation.

In the National Foot and Mouth Disease Strategic Plan, the 8th strategy is monitoring and evaluation. A committee of the monitoring and evaluation that is composed of representative from government and private sector of FMD strategic plan will be set up. The committee will indicate the minimum standard of performance indicators and could employ experts to evaluate the process, outcome, and result of the plan. Finally the result of the monitoring and evaluation will be reported to the strategic plan committee in order to consider the effectiveness of the program.

e. Stage Transition

With FAO and OIE collaboration, Thailand did a self-evaluation in July 2013 for the Progressive Control Pathway (PCP) stage for FMD control within the country and all livestock regions. The results showed that Thailand made progress in three of the five progressive –stage. It means that the country now understand the outbreak of foot and mouth disease and knows risk factors for the disease in the country as well. FMD outbreak was greatly reduced and a zone in Thailand had no incidence of FMD. To leverage the progress up to level 4 and 5 in the future, Thailand will need to focus on social and economic impact of the disease, risk factors of supply chain information, risk factors of social networks in the production and trading of animals, choice to manage the risk of disease, reprocessing investigation to know the source of the disease, enhancement of understanding between farmers and officers, public relations and establish a collaborative network to control the disease even more.

Working group for drafting the National Foot and Mouth Disease Strategic Plan of Thailand in 2016-2023 reviewed and reset the goal in 2015. The target area and PCP stage goal are concluded in table 8-2.

 

Timeline for transition along the Progressive Control Pathway of Foot and mouth disease in Thailand.

Target area   Current PCP stage  PCP stage goal  Year goal
 Region 2 (Eastern)  4  2016
 Region 8 and 9 (Southern) 2019 
 Region 3 and 4 (North-eastern) 2020 
Region 1, 5, 6 and 7 (Central, Northern and Western) 2022
Thailand (whole country) 3 4 2023

 

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The Progressive Control Pathway for FMD control  (PCP-FMD)