National Animal disease surveillance system (NADSS)
Monitoring and surveillance program for animal disease is one of key components of DLD’s mission. Surveillance programs and activities are aimed at ensuring rapid detection of, and early response to, animal disease threats, as well as development and application of new technologies for early and rapid disease detection.
In general, there are disease surveillance and monitoring systems that most of livestock diseases have regularly been included in laboratory surveillance. Some species active surveillance and monitoring programs were conducted such as Notifiable avian influenza, Newcastle disease, Foot and mouth disease, Nipah encephalitis, Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, Brucellosis, Tuberculosis, Para tuberculosis, and etc.
1. Active surveillance system
1.1 Active clinical surveillance
The active clinical surveillance is a baseline and important component in disease surveillance that is conducted by the Province Livestock Officials, District Livestock Officials, Sub district Livestock Assistant and their livestock volunteers in the sub district and village level. Veterinary officers and para-veterinary officers have their routine practice or regular program to visit targeted villagers or farmers, at least once or twice a month. The propose of the visit is to check general animal health and production status in those villages. If any notifiable disease or animal health problem occurs, the authority will either be immediately informed during visit or later at the PLO or DLO in order to conduct outbreak investigation.
1.2 Active surveillance for specifics diseases
Several specific animal disease surveillance programs have been undergoing at national level. At present, DLD has been conducting specific surveillance programs for Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), Brucellosis, Foot and mouth disease, Nipah encephalitis, Notifiable avian influenza, Para tuberculosis, and Tuberculosis. In general, the Bureau of Disease Control and Veterinary Services is responsible for planning, resource allocation and epidemiological analysis etc. The supportive veterinary laboratories for terrestrial animal disease surveillance are the National Institute of Animal Health (NIAH), the Foot and mouth Disease Diagnostic Centre or Southeast Asia FMD Regional Reference Laboratory, and other 7 Regional Veterinary Research and Development Centres (RVRDCs) in Lampang, Pitsanuloke, Khonkean, Surin, Chonburi, Ratchaburi and Nakornsridhamaraj Provinces. The 9 Regional Livestock Offices supervise animal activities of the Provincial Livestock Offices in their responsible areas.
The national active surveillance programs have been carried out with several objectives and for many achievable advantages such as;
- To evaluate specific disease control program the DLD has conducted, such as a sero-surveillance in dairy cattle on annual basis for detecting sero-conversion animals on the premises or the prevalence of brucellosis, tuberculosis, and para tuberculosis in ruminant farms. These programs are very useful for general health monitoring and evaluation of disease freedom achievement, any problems or progress in eradication of certain diseases, in particular, farms or premises for further declaration or accreditation of a specific disease free status.
- To enhance veterinary capability in early disease detection and notification for preparedness to control and rapid alert or early warning of disease outbreaks.
- To prove freedom from certain diseases or to establish areas free status in Thailand in complies with the OIE international animal health codes. To date, Thailand has been conducting active surveillance schemes at national scale for Nipah encephalitis, Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), and etc.
- To screen transboundary animals in order to exclude animal diseases from those imported along the Thai borders. The serum samples will be collected for brucellosis screening test while they have been quarantined in an Animal Quarantine Station (AQS) at the border areas for a period of time.
2. Active surveillance system
2.1 Notifiable Disease Reporting
An effective passive surveillance such as animal disease notification system helps us detect disease outbreak early before it spreads widely. The District Livestock Officials are the first DLD authority at the field level to report any suspected cases of notifiable diseases. The occurrence may be informed to their office, by owners, villagers, farmers, hatcheries or slaughterhouses, in their justice area. The local veterinary staff has to conduct disease investigation and collect samples before completing reports and submit them to the provincial office within a specified period. In case of any serious disease is confirmed, the district veterinary staff can undergo public awareness campaign to educate farmers and villagers. The farmer or livestock volunteers in affected area are expected to report clinical signs of diseases to the authority as quickly as possible and be on alert.
2.2 Laboratory surveillance
The National Institute of Animal Health (NIAH) and 7 RVRDCs are responsible for conducting routine laboratory surveillance for any other animal disease. The diagnostic results from all specimen or samples submitted to the NIAH and RVRDCs will be reported to the DLD’s Director General through Veterinary Epidemiology Development Center (VEDC) on monthly basis
|Reporting Form||Time period to submit report|
|Preliminary Animal Disease Reporting Form (DR.1)||Within 24 hours after the disease has been noticed.|
|Epidemiological Investigation Reporting Form (DR.2)||Within 72 hours after the disease has been noticed.|
|Disease Status Reporting Form (DR.3)||Weekly report after the disease has been noticed|
|Vaccination Reporting Form (DR.4)||After ring vaccination in surrounding area has completed|
|(Designed plan / Result) Ring Vaccination program (DR.5)||
Within 72 hours after the diseases has been noticed.
Vaccination resultAfter ring vaccination in surrounding area has completed.
|Progress Report of Disease control (DR.6)||Weekly report|
|Sample Submitting Form||To accompany the sample submitted to the laboratory|
Apart from national notifiable diseases listed, there is animal disease notification system established, from an owner or a farmer in a village to DLD authority, in the line of command, up to the headquarters. Once the diseases is suspected or outbreak reported, the local DLD authority has to conduct outbreak investigation as immediately as possible. The relevant investigative information will confirm appropriate intervention measures in order to eliminate the disease at source. When an outbreak occurs, control measures will be undertaken immediately to stop spread of the disease, comprised of:
- Movement control in the infected area and/or within 10 km radius,
- Quarantine the infected premises and surrounding risk areas,
- Outbreak investigation and tracing backward to identify the source of origin
- Stamping out or depopulation
- Compensation at 75% of the local market price
- Disinfection of house, vehicles, farm equipment and materials in the infected premises,
- Disposal of carcasses, their products and infected materials (eg. Feedstuff, waste, manure, bedding, etc)
- Ring vaccination practice for major livestock disease,
- Active surveillance during the outbreak
- Routine monitoring prior to movement permission
- Biosecurity enhancement in all type of management
- Public awareness and farmer education
- National cooperation to all authorities concerned
- International coordination (OIE, trading partners etc.)