Rationale and Importance
Dairy cattle industry is one of an important agricultural farming in Thailand. Regarding the main role of Bureau of biotechnology in livestock production, the distribution of high quality semen, in order to produce high performance cow, should be concerned. In the past decade, the application of imported semen became an effective tool for upgrading the percentage of native cattle blood level. However, this crossbred cattle with high percentage of blood level of exotic breed exhibited high infection of tropical diseases and low resistance in high environmental temperature. Therefore, due to the cooperation with FAO, breeding improvement project by developing crossbred cattle, which is suitable to grow and raise in tropical region is established. The dairy cattle breeding programme of tropical holstein project consists of seven important steps as following :
- 200 elite cows (bull dams) selected based on their genetic evaluations and selection criteria. About 2/3 of these cows are planned mating to domestic elite bulls (bull sires), and the remainder with elite foreign bulls.
- About 40 bull calves son of elite cows that are collected from farmer by the AI research centers yearly are all tested parentage and moved into bull testing centre for performance test.
- Up to 12-14 month old, all young bulls are selected by commissions on the basis of the growth, conformation. Half of them will be culled. The other half will be sent to semen production centre for semen collection in semen quality test and progeny test.
- The test bull’s semen is distributed to many different herds nationwide for test mating. About 50-100 milk recorded daughters are produced from each test bull randomly.
- During waiting for the result of progeny test, the collected semen of test bull will be stored in semen bank.
- After genetic evaluation, semen of tested bull with positive value will be selected as proven sire and still kept in semen bank, and the negative valued semen will be discarded.
- The proven sire will be distributed to general service and some semen from top proven sire will be sent to inseminate with elite cows in breeding program.
Therefore, there are four main activities of this project including:
1. Herd book and statistical analysis
- Animal registration
- Milk recording
- Type appraisal
2. Bull calves production
- Selection of bull dams and bull sires
- Artificial insemination and/
- Make an agreement with cow’s owner to allow young male calf entering the performance test
- Calf transfer and sample collection for determining genetic diseases, parentage test, red hair gene carrier and single nucleotide polymorphism
3. Young sire testing
- Performance test
- Semen quality test
- Progeny test
4. Animal genetic evaluation - using statistical and mathematic models
- To produce high performance Thai Holstein which is suitable for raising in tropical region and producing acceptable amount of milk
- To research and apply advanced technology and database system on enhancing precisely breeding evaluation in dairy cattle
- To encourage and support agricultural farming in Thailand
Tropical Holstein Proven sire of 2017